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essay代写_历史学essay写作范文_顶级留学代写机构

发布时间:2021-02-02 热度:

mingxinwrite在新西兰的服务有新西兰论文代写,新西兰代写Assignment,惠灵顿奥克兰代写论文另外我们的Essay代写,Report、paper、Dissertation、thesis代写
下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- A vicious circle of crime and violence in Brazil,文章讲述里约热内卢是2016年世界奥林匹克运动会和2014年世界杯的主办城市,自19世纪末以来,贫民窟始于城市规划的“无吸引力”之地,此后一直遭受贫民窟相关的犯罪和暴力侵害,在19世纪末至20世纪中叶的大部分时间里,当局一直不加监督。

A vicious circle of crime and violence in Brazil

Rio de Janeiro, as the host city of 2016 World Olympic Games and 2014 World Cup, has been suffering from favela related crimes and violence ever since the end of 19th century, when the favelas started in places considered “unattractive” for urban planning, and were carelessly supervised by the authorities during most of the time between the end 19th century and mid-20th century. As the population grew rapidly in 1950s, favela’s number mushroomed without control, the order of restrictions became ineffective; crime and violence began to emerge in favelas and eventually turned into severe social issue of Rio de Janeiro, even the whole Brazil. Although the government tried several times to restore orders to the favela by force, the attempts failed for the massive defense by the gangs, criminals and even normal favela residents. The situation has become a major security concern of Brazil, and it is worth discussing the possible elements hiding behind these violence and crimes.

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The formation of favelas can be traced by to the end of 19th century, when the traditionally considered “unattractive” southern Rio de Janeiro had its first group of “favelas”, and the residents were generally under-developed people who suffered from poverty. The Brazilian government accused the favela residents as “illegal”, and people who lived outside the favelas in Rio de Janeiro didn’t accept them as part of the city as well. By the 1950s, the population boom in Brazil expanded Brazilian population by several times, and favelas began to appear in more parts of the city. However, instead of taking positive attitudes, the society became extremely intolerant of favela and its residents, accusing them of the source of instability and poverty of the whole city, which forced the favela residents to form a condominium of their own. Until today, many people, especially middle class of Rio de Janeiro, still uphold disbelieving attitudes towards favela, which made the issue worse. In fact, the local government, media and residents have been demonize and dehumanize favela lives and works for years since the beginning of 21st century, and the process is highly likely to be carried on further.

The most well-known form of crime in Rio de Janeiro favelas is drug trafficking and its related violence incidents. The favela gangs and left activists imprisoned by the military authorities in 1970s collaborated in prisons to form a much larger net of drug storage and transportation. Just as mentioned above, favelas are carelessly administrated and hardly anyone would think of hunting down criminals in favelas at that time. The whole situation intensified greatly when the military government was overthrown, and the favela gangs, militias and other influential armed groups such as CV (Commando Vermelho) emerged as major threats to local society and newly formed government. The government itself, due to the imperfect democratization, corrupted and even collaborated with favela gangsters to gain profits from drug trafficking. The later formed BOPE forces, which consists of elite police which are against all forms of bribery and corruption, determines to bring down those dirty trade and favela militias, but have ended up with a number of failures due to the deep rooted traditions of favelas. The favela culture also contributed greatly to the survival of favela gangsters and crimes, for they firmly believe that they are the masters of the land they live, that no one should and could interfere.

As a matter of fact, the favelas have become far more powerful than just armed groups or the union of drug traffickers. They have now become a part of Brazilian politics, as an interest group with its own activists, spokesman and common interest group. The Brazilian government and police refused to admit the favela so, but they have to face the reality that favelas are more than the gathering of under-developed residents. The second largest favela of Rio de Janeiro, Jacarezinho, was one of the most influential groups which made its own voice in local society, online network and presses. The condominium of Jacarezinho was determined to persuade the public that the land of the favela should be placed under the supervision of the favela residents, which triggered negative comments from political elites. Again the reactions between two groups of the society reflect their deep disbelief and suspect towards each other, and that it would be difficult to coordinate in a short period of time.

Along with the violence, crimes and other unstable elements, the favela has developed its own form of culture within itself, and one of the most influential is the funk music, which began to gain popularity among favela teenagers in 1980s. It is comprised of a heavy, bass-driven electronic blend of beats with very strong rhythm. The rhymes of these funk songs are violent and strong, reflecting the realities in Brazilian favelas—continuous conflicts and fights broke out between gangsters or gangsters and police forces, etc. The lyrics of the song are more curious than common gangster songs or raps: they pay homage to the favela gangsters such as CV to recognize them as the legitimate defenders of their societies, which is the favela. From this reality we can see that the violence and crime in reality have become something popular, people in the favelas do not hate them but worship them, and it has had the features of culture. Once the culture is cultivated, people inside will become influenced, generations by generations.

Political corruption and bribery is also another element which hinders the actions against favela related crimes. The local police, government officials and some civic groups within the city are all their business collaborators. The favela gangs will pay government officials and police for less penalties force upon them, and the officials will pay them back for their votes in elections; the civic groups that need to operate in the favela would also go through gangsters for protections. They will pay for a power of club or gangster in exchange of their own security, sometimes monopoly, in a certain area of the favela. The flowing capital within the favela gives birth to black markets, especially weapon markets. The gangsters will import weapons and ammos from outside to equip themselves, and those weapons are not only small arms. This chain of interest had made the favelas more like a society of themselves, which can feed and supply their own residents.

The chain reaction of all these features goes back to the beginning—the public hatred and concerns of the favela. Local media keep reporting negative news about the favelas, and ordinary people who are scared by the favela dare not go inside to experience the favela themselves, so they choose to believe what media have said. With more hostilities, the favelas have to hold more tightly within themselves, and residents have firmer belief to defend their communities. The whole incident is like a vicious spiral, haunting people both inside and outside the favela. The violence in Brazilian is nothing as simple as illegal trades or homicide; it is the product of years of hostility, disbelief, misunderstanding and stereotypes. If not taken seriously and effectively, it will be more severe and eventually bring disaster to Brazilian society.


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