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高分心理学作业代写_专业心理学论文写作

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Psychology Assignment不会写就找Psychology Assignment代写,心理学assignment代写,心理学作业代写,只需联系我们即可完成高质量的Psychology Assignment ...
REVIEW SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM
Psychology Fundamentals C ~ P11C/Psych9C

CHAPTER 11:  HEALTH & WELLNESS

I.  What Affects Health?
A.  Social Context, Biology, and Behavior Combine to Affect Health
  1.  Biopsychosocial model
  2.  Causes of mortality:  People are most likely to die from causes that stem from their own behaviors
  3.  Health disparities:  Sex, race, life style and ethnicity influence longevity
B.  Obesity and Maladaptive Eating Habits Have Many Health Consequences:  BMI, overeating, genetic influences, stigma
       of obesity, restrictive dieting, restrained eating, and disordered eating
D.  Smoking Is a Leading Cause of Death
  1.  Observation of attractive models of smoking leads many people to start smoking.
  2.  Social influence play a large role in starting to smoke.
  3.  Physiological dependence on nicotine may be related to genetics.
  4.  A new nicotine delivery system has become increasingly popular: e-cigarettes.
  5.  Quitting
E.  Exercise Has Numerous Benefits:  The more people exercise, the better their physical, mental, and cognitive health
II.  What Is Stress?
A.  Stress Has Physiological Components:  Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis); stress
B.  There Are Sex Differences in How We Respond to Stressors:  Fight-or-flight; tend-and-befriend
C.  The General Adaptation Syndrome Is a Bodily Response to Stress: Three stages
III.  How Does Stress Affect Health?
A.  Stress Disrupts the Immune System: The body’s mechanism for dealing with invading microorganisms; lymphocytes
B.  Stress Increases the Risk of Heart Disease:  Leading cause of death; Type A behavior pattern; Type B behavior pattern;
       hostility and heart disease; physiological effects of stress on the heart
C.  Coping Reduces the Negative Health Effects of Stress:  Primary appraisals; secondary appraisals; types of coping;
       individual differences in coping
IV. Can a Positive Attitude Keep People Healthy?
A.  Positive Psychology Emphasizes Well-Being
B.  Being Positive Has Health Benefits:  Positive emotions can predict better mental and physical health.
C.  Social Support Is Associated with Good Health:  The buffering hypothesis, supportive marriages, supportive friendships
D.  Spirituality Contributes to Well-Being
  1.  Religious groups can help us maintain well-being through social and physical support.
  2.  Religion or spirituality helps us derive meaning and purpose in life.
E.  Taking Care of Mind and Body:  Eat natural foods; watch portion size; drink alcohol in moderation (if at all); keep active;
       do not smoke; practice safe sex; learn to relax; learn to cope; build a strong support network; consider your spiritual life;
       try some happiness exercises

CHAPTER 12:  SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

I.  How Does Group Membership Affect People?
A.  People Favor Their Own Groups:  Formation of ingroups and outgroups; outgroup homogeneity effect; social identity
       theory; ingroup favoritism
B.  Groups Influence Individual Behavior:  Social facilitation, deindividuation, group decision making, social loafing
C.  People Conform to Others: Conformity, influence, social normal, Asch study, Sherif study
D.  People Are Often Compliant
E.  People Are Obedient to Authority: Milgram’s famous study
II.  When Do People Harm or Help Others?
A.  Many Factors Can Influence Aggression:  Biological factors; social & cultural factors
B.  Many Factors Can Influence Helping Behavior:  Prosocial behavior; altruistic behavior
C.  Some Situations Lead to Bystander Apathy:  Bystander intervention effect
D.  Cooperation Can Reduce Outgroup Bias:  Robbers Cave experiment; shared superordinate goals; Jigsaw classroom
III.  How Do Attitudes Guide Behavior?
A.  People Form Attitudes through Experience and Socialization:  Negative vs. positive attitudes; mere exposure effect
B.  Behaviors Are Consistent with Strong Attitudes:  Ease of attitude accessibility predicts behavior resistant to change
C.  Attitudes Can Be Explicit or Implicit
D.  Discrepancies Lead to Dissonance
E.  Attitudes Can Be Changed Through Persuasion:  Elaboration Likelihood Model
IV.  How Do People Think About Others?
A.  Physical Appearance Affects First Impressions: Nonverbal behavior
B.  People Make Attributions About Others:  Personal attributions; situational attributions; fundamental attribution error;
       actor/observer discrepancy
C.  Stereotypes Are Based on Automatic Categorization: People may see illusory correlations.
D.  Stereotypes Can Lead to Prejudice:  Prejudice, discrimination, ingroup/outgroup bias, modern racism
E.  Prejudice Can Be Reduced:  Inhibiting stereotypes; perspective taking and perspective giving
V.  What Determines the Quality of Relationships?
A.  Situational and Personal Factors Influence Interpersonal Attraction and Friendships
1.  Proximity
a.  The more people come into contact, the more likely they are to become friends
b.  Mere exposure effect
  2.  Similarity: People tend to like others who are similar to themselves
  3.  Attractiveness:  Physical appearance is an important determinant of attraction  
   a.  Rating of facial attractiveness is generally consistent across all cultures
   b.  Most people find symmetrical faces more attractive then asymmetrical ones
   c.  “Average” faces (the arithmetical average) are more attractive
   d.  What is beautiful is good” stereotype
B.  Love Is an Important Component of Romantic Relationships:  Passionate love, companionate love, attachment styles
  1.  Analyzing love: Romantic love (also called passionate love) and companionate love
  a.  Romantic/passionate love has been described as a wildly emotional state
b.  When love continues past the romantic love stage, it transforms  into companionate love. 
  2.  Attachment styles
C.  Staying in Love Can Require Work:  Dealing with conflict, attributional style

CHAPTER 13:  PERSONALITY

I.  Where Does Personality Come From?
A.  Personality Is Rooted in Genetics
  1. There is overwhelming evidence that nearly all personality traits have a genetic component.
  2. Research has revealed genetic components for particular behaviors:
B.  Temperaments Are Evident in Infancy:  Three types pf temperament; temperament differences between boys & girls
C.  There Are Long-Term Implications of Temperaments:  Socially inhibited children; children judged to be undercontrolled
D.  Personality Is Adaptive
  1.  We might expect that personality traits useful for survival and reproduction have been favored.
  2.  Animal personalities
II.  What Are the Theories of Personality?
A.  Psychodynamic Theories Emphasize Unconscious and Dynamic Processes:  Unconscious influences; personality
       structure; defense mechanisms; psychosexual stages; neo-Freudians
B.  Personality Reflects Learning and Cognition: Internal and external locus of control; cognitive-social theories
C.  Humanistic Approaches Emphasize Integrated Personal Experience
D.  Trait Approaches Describe Behavioral Dispositions
  1.  Personality types: discrete categories of people based on personality characteristics.
  2.  Trait approach: focuses on individuals’ differences in personality traits.
  3.  Five-factor theory (OCEAN) (AKA The Big Five):
  4.  The Big Five emerge across cultures, among adults and children
  5.  The Big Five factors can be reliably discriminated based on patterns of brain activity.
  6.  Biological trait theory (Eysenck):
  7.  Behavioral approach and inhibition systems
III.  How Stable Is Personality?
A.  People Sometimes Are Inconsistent:  Situationism
B.  Behavior Is Influenced by the Interaction of Personality and Situations (Interactionists)
C.  Personality Traits Are Relatively Stable over Time
  1.“Up” documentary series film: interviewed at ages 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56
  2.  Personality consistency is lowest in childhood and highest after age 50.
  3.  McCrae and Costa’s model of personality
D.  Development and Life Events Alter Personality Traits
  1.  Individual personalities remain relatively stable over time.
  2.  The pattern of personality changes across ages holds in different cultures.
  3.  Change as a result of expectations and experiences associated  with age-related roles, such as becoming a spouse
E.  Culture Influences Personality
  1.  The Big Five personality traits are cross-cultural.
  2.  Cross-cultural personality differences do not necessarily match cultural stereotypes.
  3.  Differences between men and women:
IV.  How Is Personality Assessed?
A.  Personality Refers to Both Unique and Common Characteristics:  Idiograpic approaches; nomothetic approaches
B.  Researchers Use Multiple Methods to Assess Personality:  Projective measures; objective measures
C.  Observers Show Accuracy in Trait Judgments
V.  How Do We Know Our Own Personalities?
A.  Our Self-Concepts Consist of Self-Knowledge:  Self-awareness; self-schemas; working self-concept
B.  Perceived Social Regard Influences Self-Esteem:  Sociometer; terror management theory; importance of self-esteem
C.  People Use Mental Strategies to Maintain a Positive Sense of Self.
D.  There Are Cultural Differences in the Self:  Interdependent vs. independent self-construals

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CHAPTER 14:  PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

I.  How Are Psychological Disorders Conceptualized and Classified?
A. Psychopathology: sickness or disorder of the mind
  1.  Etiology: factors that contribute to the development of a disorder
  2.  Possession by demons or evil spirits.
  3. Philippe Pinel
  4. Physical basis for psychopathology
B.  Psychopathology Is Different from Everyday Problems
  1. Disorders are distinguishable from normal low points in life by severity & duration
  2. About 1 in 4 Americans over age 18 has a diagnosable psychological disorder in a given year.
  3. Nearly half of Americans will have some form of psychological disorder at  some point in life.
  4. Abnormal behavior:  deviates from cultural norms, is maladaptive, is self-destructive, and/or causes distress
C.  Psychological Disorders Are Classified into Categories
  1. .Emil Kraepelin
  2. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM): 1952 (DSM-1) through 2013 (DSM-5)
  3. Categorical approach
  4. Alternative type of evaluation, called a dimensional approach
  5. A problem with the DSM-5 is that people seldom fit neatly into the precise categories provided.
  6. Research Domain Criteria (RDoC)
D.  Psychological Disorders Must Be Assessed
  1. Assessment: structured or unstructured interviews, observations, self-report questionnaires, or other tests.
  2. Neuropsychological testing:  MRI or PET scans
  3. Evidence-based assessment
E.  Early Conceptions of Mental Disorders
  1.  Somatogenic hypothesis
  2.  Psychogenic hypothesis
F.  Modern Conceptions of Mental Disorders:  Psychological Disorders Have Many Causes
  1. Diathesis-stress model of diagnosis
  2. Biological factors:  toxins, genetic factors, maternal illness, malnutrition, & neurological dysfunction
  3. Family systems model: problems in individual indicate problems in family
  4. Sociocultural model: psychopathology results from interaction between individual and culture.
  5. Cognitive-behavioral approach: psychopathology results from learned, maladaptive thoughts and beliefs
  6. Dependence on alcohol is much more likely in men; anorexia nervosa is much more likely in women   G. Internalizing disorders
  8. Externalizing disorders are characterized by disinhibition.
  9. Culture and psychological disorders
II.  Which Disorders Emphasize Emotions or Moods?
A.  Anxiety Disorders Make People Apprehensive and Tense
  1.  Anxiety disorder
  2. Phobias
   a.  Specific phobias are phobias directed as a particular object, like snakes or blood
   b.  Social Anxiety Disorder (formerly sometimes called social phobia)
3. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): the anxiety is not related to anything in particular
   a.  GAD has a lifetime prevalence of 6%, and it is seen twice as frequently in women than men
   b.  Patients with this disorder are visibly worried almost all the time
4.  Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia
   a.  Panic disorder is characterized by recurrent, unexpected panic attacks
   b.  Panic disorder is often accompanied by agoraphobia
  6. Development of anxiety disorders
a.  Some fears/anxiety may be learned
  b.  There is also a biological factor
  c.  Psychological maltreatment in childhood is a risk factor for many anxiety disorders
  d.  Biased thinking
B.  Unwanted Thoughts Create Anxiety in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders
  1.  The most common disorder in this DSM-5 category is obsessive-compulsive disorder
2.  The obsessions come in many varieties, but common ones involve concerns about dirt and contamination
3.  Obsessive thoughts produce anxiety; compulsions counteract this anxiety
  4.  Affecting 1-2 percent of the population, OCD is more common in women than men, and it
     generally begins in early adulthood
C.  Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Results from Trauma
1.  For women, the most common such event is rape or physical assault; for men, it is military combat
2.  Acute stress disorder
3.  Post-traumatic stress disorder
  a.  The lifetime prevalence of PTSD is 7%, and women are more likely to develop PTSD than men
b.  Symptoms of PTSD fall into four major clusters in the DSM-V
c.  Some individuals are more at risk than others for developing PTSD
D.  Depressive Disorders Consist of Sad, Empty, or Irritable Mood
  1. Major depressive disorder
a.  Depressed mood or a loss of interest in pleasurable activities every day for at least 2 weeks
  b.  Major depression affects about 6-7% of Americans in a given 12-month period
  2. Persistent depressive disorder
   a.  Persistent depressive disorder, sometimes called dysthymia, is of mild to moderate severity
b.  Depressed mood most of the day, more days than not, for at least 2 years
  3. Depression is so prevalent that it is sometimes called the common cold of psychological disorders.
  4.  The Role of Gender in Depressive Disorders
a.  Women’s multiple roles in most societies may cause stress
b.  Overwork and lack of support contribute to the higher rate of depression in women
5.  The Roots of Depressive Disorders: Depressive disorders have biological, situational, and cognitive components
   a.  Biological: genes play role in inception – SSRIs, damage to the left prefrontal cortex
   b.  Situational: stressors play role in development
   c.  Cognitive: cognitive triad and learned helplessness play roles in development of mood disorders
F.  Bipolar Disorders Involve Depression and Mania
  1. Manic episodes last at least one week
  2. Bipolar I disorder
  3. Bipolar II disorder
  4. Bipolar disorders are much less common than depression.
  5. Causes of Bipolar disorders:  family history, genetics
III.  I think my friend might be suicidal:  What Should I Do?
A.  Understanding risk factors associated with suicide is an important step toward preventing suicide
  1.  People desire death when two fundamental needs are frustrated to the point of extinction
  a.  The first of these fundamentals needs is the need to  belong, to feel connected with others
  b.  The second of these fundamentals needs is the need for competence.
  2.  Just because a person wants to commit suicide does not mean she or he will be able to do so
  a.  Evolution has hardwired us with a tremendously strong self-perseveration instinct
  b  What makes a person be able to overcome this hard-wiring and go through with it?
  3.  Individuals who are most at risk of dying by suicide both want to do so and are able to do so
4.  Suicide is a very complex psychological phenomenon
  a.  Many factors might lead someone to want to commit suicide.
  b.  Many factors might prompt someone to arm him or herself with the ability to endure self-harm
B.  What to do if you think a friend might be suicidal
1.  First and foremost, take suicidal threats seriously
2.  Second, get help.
  a.  Someone who is considering suicide should be screened by a trained professional
  b.  Contact a counselor at your school, ask a religious leader for help, or call a suicide hotline
c.  These individuals  can help you get your  friend the support he or she needs
  3.  Third, let your friend know you care
   a.  Tell them that you value your relationship, that you care about them, and that you need them in your life
b.  Reind your friend about the reasons you admire him or her or ask for help with something
  4.  Finally, try to help your friend remember that suicide is forever
   a.  The problems that prompt a person to feel suicidal are often temporary
   b.  There are other ways to overcome these issues, and things can (and will) get better.
III.  Which Disorders Emphasize Thought Disturbances?
A.  Dissociative Disorders Are Disruptions in Memory, Awareness, and Identity
  1.  Dissociative disorders are disorders that involve disruptions of identity, of memory, or of conscious awareness.
  2.  Dissociative amnesia: forgetting that an event happened or losing awareness of blocks of time
  3.  Dissociative fugue: loss of identity coupled with sudden and unplanned travel to another location
  4.  Dissociative identity disorder (DID):
   a.  occurrence of two or more distinct identities in individual
   b.  formerly called multiple personality disorder
   c.  Most people diagnosed with DID are women who report being severely abused as children.
B.  Schizophrenia Involves a Split Between Thought and Emotion
1.  Schizophrenia: a psychological disorder characterized by a split between thought and emotion
   a.  affects between 0.5 percent and 1.0 percent of the population has schizophrenia
   b.  characterized by a combination of motor, cognitive, behavioral, and perceptual abnormalities
2.  Researchers tend to group symptoms into two categories: positive and negative
3.  Delusions are false beliefs based on incorrect inferences about reality.
4.  Hallucinations: false sensory perceptions that are experienced without an external source.
  5.  Disorganized speech
  6.  Disorganized behavior is acting in strange or unusual ways
  7.  Negative symptoms are symptoms of schizophrenia that are marked by deficits in functioning:
   a.  apathy
   b.  lack of emotion
   c.  slowed speech
   d.  slowed movement
  8.  Biological causes:  genetics, mutations of DNA, primarily a brain disorder
9.  Environmental factors
IV.  What Are Personality Disorders?
A.  Personality Disorders Are Maladaptive Ways of Relating to the World
1.  Symptoms occur in clusters:
   a.  “A” cluster: “odd” (paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal)
   b.  “B” cluster: “dramatic” (histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial)
   c.  “C” cluster: “anxious” (avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive)
B.  Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Is Associated with Poor Self-Control
1.  Patients were considered on the border between normal and psychotic.
  2.  BPD: 
   a.  characterized by disturbances in identity, affect, and in impulse control
   b.  often precipitated by history of trauma and of abuse
C.  Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) Is Associated with a Lack of Empathy
  1.  in which people engage in socially undesirable behavior, are hedonistic and impulsive, and lack empathy:
   a. 1–4 percent of the population have antisocial personality disorder.
   b. As many as 50 percent of prison inmates meet the criteria for antisocial personality disorder.
  2.  occurs in individuals with differences in brain functioning:  slower alpha-wave activity, amygdala abnormalities
  3. influenced by genetics and negative environmental factors
V.  Which Psychological Disorders Are Prominent in Childhood?
A.  Autism Spectrum Disorder Involves Social Deficits and Restricted Interests
  1.  Autism:
   a.  Characterized by deficits in social interaction, by impaired communication, and by restricted interests
   b.  approximately 3– 6 children out of 1,000 show signs of autism, and males outnumber females 3 to 1.
   c.  Autism spectrum disorder is new to DSM-5.
2.  Core symptoms
3.  Genetic component:
   a.  In addition to autism being heritable, it also appears that gene mutations may play a role.
   b.  Prenatal and/or early childhood events may result in brain dysfunction.
   c.  Exposure to antibodies in the womb may affect brain development.
   d.  People with autism have faulty wiring in a large number of areas.
  B.   Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Is a Disruptive Impulse Control Disorder
  1.  characterized by restlessness, inattentiveness, and impulsivity.
  2.  genetic component.
  3.  may be caused by an interaction among brain differences, poor parenting, and social disadvantages.
  4.  adults with ADHD symptoms: about 4 percent of the population.

CHAPTER 15:  TREATMENT OF MENTAL DISORDERS (THERAPIES)

I.  How Are Psychological Disorders Treated?
A.  Psychotherapy Is Based on Psychological Principles
1.  Psychotherapy is aimed at changing patterns of thought or of behavior.
  2.  To help the patient gain insight into his or her psychological processes, psychoanalysis uses:
   a.  free association.
   b.  dream analysis.
  3.  Psychodynamic therapy
   a.  evidence weak for its effectiveness in treating most psychological disorders
   b.  short-term psychodynamic therapy
  4.  Client-centered therapy: an empathic approach to therapy
5.  Behavior therapy
  6. Cognitive therapy
  7. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)
  8. Group therapy offers the opportunity to improve by hearing another’s experiences.
  9.  Family therapy offers the opportunity to change attitudes and behaviors that are disruptive to the family:
   a.  systems approach
   b.  expressed emotion: a pattern of negative actions by a client’s family members
  10.  Cultural beliefs affect treatment.
B.  Medication Is Effective for Certain Disorders
  1.  Psychotropic medications: drugs that affect mental processes
2.  Anti-anxiety drugs: tranquilizers, benzodiazepines
  3.  Antidepressants: monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors; tricyclic antidepressants; and SSRIs
  4.  Antipsychotics: tardive dyskinesia; atypical antipsychotics
  5.  Other medications:  lithium; anticonvulsants
C.  Alternative Biological Treatments Are Used in Extreme Cases
  1.  Trepanning: drilling a hole in the skull to let the evil spirits escape
  2.  Psychosurgery
  3. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): strong electrical current is delivered to the brain, aiming to reduce depression
  4. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
  5. Deep brain stimulation (DBS)
D.  Effectiveness of Treatment Is Determined by Empirical Evidence
  1.  Placebo effect: an improvement in physical or mental health following treatment with a placebo
  2.  some debate regarding the most appropriate methods and criteria used to assess clinical research
E.  Therapies Not Supported by Scientific Evidence Can Be Dangerous
F.  A Variety of Providers Can Assist in Treatment for Psychological Disorders
  1.  Clinical psychologist
2.  Psychiatrist
  3.  Counseling psychologist
  4. Psychiatric social worker
  5. Psychiatric nurse
  6. Paraprofessional:
  7. Technology-based treatments
II.   What Are the Most Effective Treatments?
A.  Treatments That Focus on Behavior and on Cognition Are Superior for Anxiety Disorders
  1.  Specific phobias: best treated through systematic desensitization
  2. Panic disorder: best treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy
B.  Both Antidepressants and CBT Are Effective for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.
1.  drug of choice for OCD is clomipramine.
  2.  Cognitive-behavioral therapy with exposure and response prevention
  3.  Deep brain stimulation
C.  Many Effective Treatments Are Available for Depression
  1.  Treatment options:  Pharmacological therapy, CBT, SAD, alternative therapies
  2. There are differences in the rates of depression and treatment in men and in women.
D.  Lithium and Atypical Antipsychotics Are Most Effective for Bipolar Disorder
  1. Lithium is an “anti-manic” drug.
  2. The drug Quetiapine (better known as Seroquel)
  3. People are sometimes given an antidepressant as well.
E.  Antipsychotics Are Superior for Schizophrenia
  1. Haloperidol and chlorpromazine
  2. Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic:
   a. acts on receptors for dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and histamine
   b. beneficial in treating the negative as well as the positive symptoms of schizophrenia
   c. no signs of Parkinson’s symptoms or of tardive dyskinesia in any of the people taking the drug
  3. Social skills training can be a useful adjunct to pharmacological treatment.
  4. Most individuals with schizophrenia improve over time.
  5. The prognosis for people with schizophrenia depends on factors that include:  age of onset, gender, & culture
III.   Can Personality Disorders Be Treated?
A.  Dialectical Behavior Therapy Is Most Successful for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)
  1.  Dialectical behavior therapy
  2. Patients with BPD who show long-term improvement are those who receive intensive treatment.
B.  Antisocial Personality Disorder Is Extremely Difficult to Treat
  1.  Treatment is made difficult by patients’:
   a.  lack of concern for rights of others.
   b.  lack of concern for the consequences of their own actions.
   c.  tendency to lie.
  2. Overall psychotropic medications have not been effective in treating this disorder.
  3. Prognosis is poor.
  4. Behavioral and cognitive approaches have demonstrated effectiveness.
IV. How Should Childhood Disorders and Adolescent Disorders Be Treated?
A.  Children with ADHD Can Benefit from Various Approaches
1.  Children with ADHD respond best to stimulant medication combined with behavioral therapy:
   a. methylphenidate/Ritalin.
   b. Behavioral treatment of ADHD
B.  Children with Autism Benefit from Structured Behavioral Treatment
  1. Applied behavioral analysis (ABA): an intensive treatment for autism, based  on operant conditioning
  2. SSRIs do not seem effective and maybe harmful, but oxytocin seems to improve social contact and relatedness.
  3. long-term prognosis poor
  4. early diagnosis is most helpful, but individuals with severe autism less likely to improve, even with treatment
C.  The Use of Medication to Treat Adolescent Depression Is Controversial
  1. Combining antidepressant drugs with cognitive-behavioral therapy provides the best outcomes.
  2. Some adolescents who take SSRIs experience suicidal thoughts, but: this happens rarely.
   a. benefits from the drugs seem to outweigh risks
   b. best advice to practitioners when using SSRIs to treat adolescents: start low, go slow.

SPECIAL TOPIC:  INDUSTRIAL/ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

I.ORIGINS OF INDUSTRIAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
A.The Advent of Scientific Management: Scientific management, Frederick Taylor, the first assembly line
B.Ergonomics: Where Psychology Meets Engineering; Ergonomics is also called “human factors”
C.The Hawthorne Studies and the Human Relations Approach to Management
1.Conducted because psychologists wanted to examine how various work conditions could influence productivity.
2.The Hawthorne Studies led to what is now known as the Hawthorne Effect
3.A human relations approach
II.INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY
A.Job Analysis and Job Evaluation
1.Job analysis
2.To make job analysis effective it must include several essential elements
3.A job analysis can include either a job-oriented description or it can include a person-oriented description
4.Involves getting information from job analysts, individuals who already have the job, supervisors, and trained observers.
5.The U.S. Department of Labor has comprised a list of more than 20,000 occupations and their descriptions.
6.A manager may use the job analysis to select the correct person for the job or to evaluate job performance.
7.Another area that may use job analysis is in the legal field.
8.The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
9.Job evaluation involves scientifically determining the monetary value of a particular occupation.
B.Personnel Selection:  Testing; interviews; work samples & exercises
C.Training
1.Orientation is a good way to acquaint new employees with the organization.
2.Formal Training
a.Training involves teaching the new employee the essential requirements to do the job well.
b.The foundation of any training program is to lay out the objectives.
c.One key to training is overlearning
3.Mentoring
a.The mentor guides the new employee through the ups and downs of beginning their new career.
b.Some employers assign mentors to new employees
D.Performance Appraisal
1.Sources of Bias in Performance Ratings: Halo effect, distributional error, effect of supervisor liking
2.360-Degree Feedback occurs when an employee’s performance is rated by a variety of individuals
3.The Importance of Fairness
a.Talking about an evaluation face-to-face
b.Raters should be trained, employees should be able to appeal the ratings, and performance should be documented
4.Other Performance Measures: Thinking Outside the Box and Organizational Citizenship Behavior
III.ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
A.Approaches to Management
1.The “Japanese” Management Style
a.W. Edwards Deming
b.A managerial style that takes risks, makes decisions based on quality, and fosters strong relationships
2.Theory X managers, Theory Y managers, and the waigawa system
3.Strengths-Based Management
a.Strength is referred to as the ability to attain near-perfect performance on a given task.
b.Few individuals think about their own personal strengths.
B.Job Satisfaction refers to the extent to which a person is content is his or her job.
1.Previously, individuals did not really choose their occupations; instead they followed in their parent’s footsteps.
2.The easiest way to find out about job satisfaction is to ask the employees to report their reactions to their jobs
3.Pay is strongly related to job satisfaction.
C.Employee Commitment: Affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment
D.The Meaning of Work
1.Individuals identify with their work and their work shapes many of their lives.
2.The way that individuals think about work and the role it plays in their lives can impact their work performance, their workplace, and their lives in general.
3.Those individuals that see their job as a calling are more likely to experience it as meaningful and fulfilling.
4.Job crafting
E.Leadership
1.Transactional Leadership
a.A transactional leader is one who emphasizes the exchange relationship between worker and leader.
b.A transactional leader believes individuals are motivated by the rewards they receive for the work they do.
2.Transformational Leadership
a.A transformational leader is not concerned with enforcing the rules but instead is concerned with changing them.
b.Transformational leaders exert an idealized influence.
c.An employee’s organizational identity is their feelings of oneness with the organization and its goals.
IV.ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
A.Types of Organizational Culture
1.Four types of organizational culture: power culture, role culture, task culture, and personal culture.
2.The type of culture that is the best is the one that meets the mission of the organization and the people involved.
B.Factors Contributing to Positive Organizational Culture: compassion, virtuousness, downsizing
C.Toxic Factors in the Workplace
1.Sexual Harassment
a.Unwanted sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature
b.Sexual harassment is related to reduced job satisfaction and to heightened intentions to leave a job.
c.Sexual harassment has two forms.
2.Workplace Violence
a.Workplace violence can range from verbal abusiveness to physical aggression and even homicide.
b.Research has shown that homicide was the third leading cause of occupational injury.
c.Workplace violence may occur between coworkers, but it may also be perpetrated by customers, clients, or patients.
d.Organizations should take seriously any threats and significant changes in behavior or performance of any employee
V.I/O PSYCHOLOGY AND HEALTH AND WELLNESS
A.Stress at Work: Job stress, role conflict, burnout
B.Managing Job Stress:  Leisure, vacation, and taking care of your body


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