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新加坡代写_新加坡论文代写

发布时间:2021-03-22 热度:

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中国经济的快速发展,给城市基础设施和环境带来了巨大压力,我们不仅要加强环境保护,在城市环境建设中,更要考虑以人为本的建设理念,减少污染,强调城市环境建设的人文关怀。

Abstract: China's rapid economic development, urban infrastructure and environment to bring tremendous pressure on us not only to strengthen environmental protection in urban environment construction, but also to consider the concept of people-oriented construction, reduce pollution, emphasizing the construction of the urban environment Humanities care.

Keywords: environmental construction; city; humane care.

Since the reform and opening up, China's economy has been rapid development of urban and rural residents has undergone major changes. The development of productive forces, a lot of surplus agricultural labor force and flow of the city to promote the improvement of the level of urbanization, enormous pressure on urban infrastructure and environmental role of human activities in the environment, the environment and on human life and promote each other mutual constraints. Therefore, we must not only strengthen environmental protection in urban environment construction, but also to consider the construction of people-oriented concept, pollution reduction, emphasis on the humane care of the urban environment construction.

Urbanization and the resulting

1, China's urbanization process
Population to the urban concentration is urbanization. China's economically developed rural areas, a large number of surplus agricultural labor force began to shift to non-agricultural activities. Change due to job changes, financial resources, to strengthen the link with the existing urban and geographical spread of urbanization. In 1949, China has entered a new historical stage, as a socio-economic and spatial phenomenon of urbanization has also started a new process. Contemporary Chinese urbanization characterized as follows: the process of urbanization has the characteristics of the fluctuations; rural urbanization begin to be felt; dynamic city-scale system change rapidly; significant provincial differences of the level of urbanization. Since the Sixteenth Congress, the State proposes to speed up the urbanization process in China from the government point of view, this is bound to bring new opportunities to the city's economic development, but also to bring appropriate issues.

 

2, urbanization brought to the city's economic development, environmental and social problems
Urban environment in harmony with the environment, the city's living environment has been damaged, causing environmental pollution, human activities impact on the environment in two ways: one is the unconscious influence of the side effects that human activities on the environment; for some purpose, to take certain measures consciously change the environment, at this stage, people first dominant impact on the environment.

The urban environment, industrial fuel use, resulting in a large number of carbides, sulfides, etc.. The use of the development of the refrigeration industry, the content of HCFCs has increased dramatically. These gases act directly on the body, resulting in tracheal diseases. In addition, these gases most of the greenhouse effect, often urban environment temperature higher temperature than the surrounding suburbs, the formation of urban heat island. Gas into the atmosphere, especially acid gases: sulfides, nitrides, and human dust, under certain conditions the formation of "acid rain, urban environment, green plants, buildings have suffered losses, make the city green to pHof.

With the accelerated pace of life, increasing to environmental emissions from the production of waste and garbage, they enter the environment after the destruction of urban amenity and tourism landscape, affect the visual and ecological environment, causing pollution. In particular, the structure of the waste plastic products are stable and resist degradation and to accumulate in the natural environment, resulting in soil compaction, affect plant growth. According to the statistics in some cities in China, especially in coastal cities waste, plastic waste to weight ratio has risen to 8% -10%, but our recovery rate has never dropped to less than 10 percent in 1994 from 20 percent in 1980, the The recycling rate has been declining.

Social problems in the process of urbanization has also had a greater impact. Urban population increases, to solve the housing problem is a priority, the urban area where the land described as "high cost of land, every inch of land can be reduced can be value-added wealth. Skyscrapers crown the sky, due to its price, location and other reasons, the people of these houses are still far behind. Tend to buy the location of the house of the poor, which would run around between the place of residence, the corresponding will adversely affect the traffic, and increasingly crowded, traffic congestion is worsening. In a residential area, due to the increase in population, health care and community services can not meet people's needs. In addition, the increase in wealth in the urban environment, technological advances, the city's large-scale renovation and beautification movement brings more leisure time. On the contrary, the city's pace of life and people's mental stress and psychological burden is growing increase with age. Other people the most concern, is that various social problems in the growing economy and the environment is growing updated correspondingly increased: rising crime rates, increase in the number of juvenile delinquency, social and moral ethics facing a crisis, unemployment hidden almost over every families.

Humans by direct or indirect means to the environment, positive and negative two-way influence the environment in turn affects human life.

Urban issues, the negative effects on human life

1, the stress of urban problems generated
The modern urban environment to provide the public facilities and public implementation, but in some industrial cities, especially the high concentration of large cities with integrated functions, the physical health of the environment gives the adverse impact.
Expansion of the city and the population increased, the inevitable residents of settlements away from the workplace, resulting in traffic "fatigue" of urban residents, residents of large cities, about 2 hours time spent on traveling. Increasingly concentrated in the central business district, the executive authorities, shops, theaters and other facilities, resulting in vehicles increased, bustling, crowded, resulting in air pollution and the spread of epidemic diseases.

Living environment is even more serious impact on the public, the person's life a large part of the time spent in the living space. Therefore, the quality of living conditions largely determine the health status of urban residents, residential sunshine is insufficient to cause disease; living area caused by the conflicts between family members. Residents lack the conditions of the outdoor activities affect the health of the public facilities due to the absence of the residential. The home itself features a single, a lack of individual design, but also enable the residents to produce a sense of apathy.

Noise pollution in the urban environment is also a serious impact on the health status of the people, the past decade, in large countries and large cities, the noise increased by 10-20 dB, as population density increased, the clamor increases two or three times. Widely used in a variety of audio equipment in the commercial competition, almost all commercial and businesses have made use of loudspeakers to attract customers. In addition, noise is a major cause of urban residents insomnia, long-term stimulation of the residents nervous system diseases, cardiovascular diseases and cerebral nervous system diseases increased.

The health hazards of air pollution on the residents of the most serious, with the increase of all types of vehicles, all residential buildings can not escape the pollution of automobile exhaust, street residents have vehicles to and from the frequent headache, dizziness, cough, nausea, malaise, these situation is more obvious in the traffic police and vehicle drivers who, according to the World Bank Century Development Report 1999 "data: only four cities in China: Chongqing, Beijing, Shanghai, Shenyang, every year a million people through contact with suspended particles premature deaths, air pollution on human respiratory disease caused by a loss of up to hundreds of millions of working days, and related economic losses into the billions of dollars. According to the statistics of some cities in China, respiratory diseases the incidence of urban residents and rural areas 2.4 times higher incidence of lung cancer is 7.3 times higher than the suburbs.
Harmful to human health in the urban environment and easily neglected an important aspect of the city's ground and soil pollution. Hazardous substances in buildings and trees, accumulations, as well as pathogenic microorganisms, resulting in soil and ground contamination, the land surface within the urban area has been seriously polluted. And pollution of the soil according to soil - crops (water) - the order of the person enters the body. Contaminated areas in the industrial city, the people of the incidence is much higher than the non-industrial city.

Urban issues, the psychological pressure on human
Urban environment have a tremendous positive impact from urban and rural reflected in the way of education, ideas and behavior. In an urban environment, the seasonal production features enable farmers to have more free time in a year. In the city, even if the rest day, the activities of a time limit, this is the public places of cities large and small, watch an increasing number, and the loss of personal characteristics. Transportation, learning, TV entertainment, shops, business has unified the timing characteristics of these constitute the rhythm of the city, the vast majority of city residents to adapt to the timing of leaving their own personal time is subject to group. Second, an increasing number of mental worker characteristics and the urban environment, the timing of characteristic formation contradictions, mental boundaries often during working hours and non-work time lost. Working day extension mainly depends on the diligence of the personal tastes and sense of responsibility. Mental workers are often engaged in a creative work, insight and results are published in create on the need for long surface seem to be ineffective, intense thought, the concept of labor is no strict time and fixed rhythm, often weeks, months, a few years as a unit, not suitable as a unit in hours. With the advent of the information society, knowledge economy, workers engaged in various mental increasing number. The urban environment is how to adapt to the mental class work and live, is still a need to be in-depth study of the problem. In addition, because the environment gives a certain amount of physiological stress, coupled with the pace of work and employment, increased competition, people's psychological pressure. In the urban population, people pay more attention to physical health problems, while ignoring the mental health problems due to various pressures and environmental impact, we should emphasize the production of human life should be human-centered humanistic ideas, emphasizing the urban environment construction of humane care.

 

Third, the construction of the urban environment need to emphasize people-oriented

The development of the city is driven by basic human needs. A universal problem in real life, there is motivation and the effect of dislocation, urban environment and people's needs are often in a state of conflict and contradiction. Changes in the urban environment can not satisfy the desire of people to achieve self-worth, but to a large extent constrained human development deviated from the track of people's needs. This problem is rooted in the design and construction of the city's starting point and the philosophy has always been economic benefits first, but did not fully take into account basic human needs. From a profound reflection on the history of world urbanization, and the reality of the situation seriously Attorney manipulation, we deeply feel: urban environment and basic human needs must be synchronized. Modern urban environment in the human to bring comfort at the same time, it also brings a lot of psychological stress and tension, often do more harm than good, such as the residential distribution of unreasonable people have a negative impact on traditional housing is mostly distributed in the road on both sides, mainly from the perspective of accessibility considerations, but from the impact on people, which concluded that more harm than good, in addition to noise, air pollution have a serious impact on people, but also away from the green natural environment, made it impossible to ease the mental stress caused by work stress. In addition, residential adjacent to the highway, and the inevitable lack of outdoor living space.

Human health, living environment, not only have material but also mental, and modern urban environment led to widespread "mental fatigue", The reason is that by over-stimulation. It is noteworthy that the diversity of media channels and publicity of the public, to bring great convenience, but also bring a lot of negative impact to people's knowledge, life and entertainment. With the emergence of some unhealthy newspapers and video products, the harm of a kind of invisible "spiritual pollution" source, its people will never lower than the substance pollution in the urban environment.

 


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