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美国assignment代写_环保学assignment写作范文_DueEssay论文代写

美国assignment代写_环保学assignment写作范文

澳洲论文代写提供 assignment代写 ,essay代写,是澳洲最好的澳洲论文代写司,代写assignment保证100%原创,turnitin软件检测,专注澳洲论文代写,悉尼代写. 本文提出的方法用于建立一个木材燃料供..

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美国assignment代写_环保学assignment写作范文

发布时间:2021-07-25 热度:

澳洲论文代写提供assignment代写,essay代写,是澳洲最好的澳洲论文代写司,代写assignment保证100%原创,turnitin软件检测,专注澳洲论文代写,悉尼代写.

本文提出的方法用于建立一个木材燃料供应链为煤/红色电厂考虑木材资源,潜在的供应商和金融、经济和环境的制约。第一步是定量和定性的森林残留电站周围的评价。在下一阶段,供应链的特点进行了分析。最后,结合森林残留物的来源和供应链的多个标准的能源生产商的约束下选择。在本案例研究,分析得出的结论是一个最佳的策略包括三个层次:一个基层由大规模伐木采收嫩枝从/ NAL的削减,一个顶层由中等规模的记录器主要收获的硬木,和一个由小规模的伐木工人和农民储备水平。给出了详细的特点。文章介绍了在比利时和欧洲合作伙伴,在四月1998日签署的“京都议定书”框架内所作的承诺,结果为比1990 [ 1 ]在比利时减少了所有温室气体排放的7.5%。在瓦隆地区,可再生能源应包括10%的总用电量的2010,生物量占65%。然而,没有或很少需求的可用资源,我们注意到,森林残留物占干生物量的潜力70%、7.6拍焦耳每年[2,3]等效。森林残留物因此代表达成的/固定的目标相当大的一步。为了遵守新规定的“绿色”电力,他们正在寻找他们的老煤炭/红色发电厂,10%木材直接从森林供应。

assignment代写
This paper presents the methods used to establish a wood-fuel supply chain for coal-/red power plants taking into account wood resources, potential suppliers and /nancial, economic and environmental constraints. The /rst step is a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of forest residues around the power plants. At the next stage, the supply chain characteristics are analyzed. Finally, a combination of forest residue sources and supply chains is selected under the constraints of the multiple criteria of the energy producers. In the present case study, the conclusion of the analysis is that an optimal strategy includes three levels: one base level made up of large-scale loggers harvesting softwood from /nal cuts, one top level made up of medium-scale loggers mainly harvesting hardwoods, and a reserve level made up of small-scale loggers and farmers. Detailed characteristics of these levels are given. ? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Forest residues; Bioenergy; Harvesting; Supply; Strategy; Biomass; Co/ring 1. Introduction The commitments entered into within the framework of the Kyoto Protocol signed by Belgium and its European partners in April 1998, result for Belgium a reduction of 7.5% of emissions of all greenhouse gases compared to the level of 1990 [1]. In the Walloon Region, renewable energy should cover 10% of the total electricity consumption by 2010, with biomass representing 65% of that. However, available resource with no or little demand for, we notice that forest residues represent more than 70% of the potential of dry biomass, equivalent of 7.6 Petajoules per year [2,3]. Forest residues therefore represent a considerable step towards reaching the /xed objectives.This paper is based on a case study carried out for ELECTRABEL, the main Belgian power producer. In order to comply with the new regulations regarding “green” electricity, they were looking to supply two of their old coal-/red power plants with 10% wood coming directly from the forest. The two coal-/red power plants are located in Wallonia (Southern Belgium) along the Meuse. This paper presents the methods used to establish a forest fuel supply chain for coal-/red power plants taking into account wood resources, potential suppliers and /nancial, economic and environmental constraints or wishes.

2. Material and method 材料和方法

This section includes the methodology used to assess the forest residue resource, to characterize the 0961-9534/03/$ -see front matter ? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S0961-9534(02)00161-7 
402 J.-F. Van Belle et al./Biomass and Bioenergy24 (2003) 401–409 supply chains and to select an optimal supply strategy for the power plants. DiKerent studies have already been carried out in order to calculate delivery costs for wood fuel taking into account multiple parameters. Asikainen et al. [4,5] showed that an important cost factor in wood fuel procurement is the scale of operation. Harvesting machinery is expensive and thus the annual output considerably aKects the costs. In addition, the greater the share of the potential fuel supply recovered, the higher the cost of procurement. The eKect of plant localization was also studied by Graham et al. [6,7]. This study takes into account these factors but tries also to integrate other factors usually not included like social considerations.


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